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Search for the Temple of Heaven in Xuzhou

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History of the Dongyue Temple and the location of the sky Qi Temple diagram

Liu Xin North "next stop: Tian Qi Village"

Ji Li Tian Qi temple remains

Han Shan Tian Qi Temple in front of the mortar

Xuzhou Painting and Calligraphy Institute of the remains of the Dongyue Temple Shilan

Lee Country Cai Shan Taishan grandmother temple remnants of the main hall of the propaganda

Peach Hill set Zhanfengshan and mountain temple, located in this Suzhou Bridge Economic and Technological Development Zone (now the temple has no deposit).


    In many temples in Xuzhou, Tian Qi Temple may be less known one, a few decades ago since the disappearance of the majority of people have been forgotten, but it is not completely out of people's lives, it is named the district, roads And the village still exists in the Xuzhou map on the introduction of remembrance.

    Tian Qi Temple, Dongyue Temple and Mount Tai

    Yunlong Lake West Coast had days Qi Temple, located in the Han Shan, Gu Shan Han Shan was once known as "Tian Qi Shan." Today, there is a small area called Han Shan Tian Qi Garden. Days after the garden is on the Peak Department, is the site of Qi Temple days.

    In the northern part of Xuzhou City, there is a "Qi-day road", which pass through the Jiuli Shan, the Sand Hill, to Ding Wanhe. There are two relatively villages along the river, were called the Western Qi Tian Qi Temple and the East, and now they are called nine miles of the streets Qi community. West of the village according to Xin Shan cloth, the village stood a Qi Temple.

    Tian Qi Temple in the past is very important to the temple, because it is dedicated to the first of the Five Sacred Mountains - Taishan the personality of God. In the state of Xuzhou, had built some Dongyue Temple. Dongyue, is the Mount Tai, Dongyue Temple is the temple of Mount Tai.

According to Xuzhou to stay in the literature analysis, in the city more called Dongyue temple, in the countryside is called the days of Qi temple. Dongyue Temple, be regarded as a more official title.

    It should be noted that the ancient Dongyue Temple is different from Taishan Grandma Temple (also known as Taishan Niangniang Temple and Bixia Yuanjun Temple) in the south of Xuzhou City, which is dedicated to the male Dongyuetai emperor rather than the female Taishan empress. Location is not in the southern city of Taishan Peak. According to historical records, the temple was built in the Ming Dynasty, was the first temple (according to the temple's name speculated that the worship may be a kind of God, And pray for the rain water god), to Qianlong thirteen years, when the prefect was changed to Bixia Palace. Xuzhou Dongyue Temple and Taishan grandmother temple (Bixia Palace) in the worship of the gods have affinity, but they are actually belong to different systems.

    The belief of the Chinese people in Taishan originated from the ancient tradition of sacrificing mountains and rivers to the primitive society, and this belief spreads almost throughout the land under the impetus and strengthening of the rulers of past dynasties. According to the records of Zhuangzi and Sima Qian, there were seventy-two emperors in ancient times. To the emperor and the emperor, Taishan's Fengshan activities reached a climax, after many of the emperors are "Fengshan" or visit Taishan have a keen interest. And the status of Mount Tai with this special political activities are constantly overstating.

    At first, "Zhou Li" is only said: "the emperor offering the world famous mountains and rivers, the Five Sacred Mountains as the three public, four mounds as princes," the Taishan listed in the courtiers in the "three" position; to Tang Xuanzong, because in Dengfeng Taishan process In the Song Dynasty, the emperor of the emperor of the Song Dynasty loved Taoism, and the great monarch of the Song Dynasty loved it. In the Song Dynasty, the emperor of the Song Dynasty loved Daoism, After the end of the first year of the Feng Fu Fengshan, the Taishan God called "days of Qi Ren Sheng Wang", after four years, and the addition of the emperor, called "Heaven Qi Ren Shengdi", the Taishan God began to "emperor. Song and Yuan Dynasties, but also the Taishan God's "wife", "son" and so on, the closure of the public, so that the personification of the Taishan family has a very high status. To the Ming Dynasty, although the authoritarian thinking more serious Hongwu emperor in view of the world can only have a "emperor" and in addition to the Taishan god emperor, to "Taishan god", but the Dongyue temple is included in the national important sacrifice to legal Form to promote the sacrifice of Mount Tai God.

    From the Song Zhenzong to the Taishan God seal the emperor, around the Dongyue Temple mushroomed to the Ming Hongwu emperor will sacrifice into the sacrificial ritual Taishan, Dongyue Temple (or Tian Qi Temple) finally all over the world government, state, county, urban and rural culture In an important landscape.

In the folk, we generally accept a name in the early Ming Dynasty was abolished - Tian Qi Da Tai, perhaps because the "Emperor" to convey the person (or God) than the "Yue" is much thicker, people are more accustomed to In direct and specific gods and not good at abstracting things into God. Only in terms of Xuzhou, the number of days Qi Temple to more than Dongyue Temple.

    According to the Republic of China, "Tongshan County", recorded as a total of three Dongyue Temple: "one in the northwest corner of the city, Ming Hongwu early construction, revealed four years destroyed in the water, the hall is still there; a Yunlongshan south, , In the Peach Hill Station, also the beginning of the Ming Dynasty. "On the days of Qi Temple," also known as Tian Qi Temple were four, one in the horses Zhang, one in Ronghua Lou, one in Xin'anji, one in Jia Home of the Court. "These contents are based on the Daoguang years of the old records, and later added:" Another in the country after the station Wei, Jin Zhenglong nine years to build, there are monuments; one in the Temple Fair, Jiajing thirty-nine Year rebuilt. "

    Dong Yue Miao in the book today?

    The Republic of "Tongshan County" mentioned in the northwest corner of the Dongyue Temple, was once confusing. Because in the Ming Dynasty orthodox, Hongzhi, Jiajing version of the local records, only recorded in a southwest corner of the city, is also the early years of Hongwu built Dongyue; and in the Qing Dynasty, Shunzhi, Kangxi, Qianlong version of records, the Dongyue Temple was Moved to the south of Yunlongshan. To the Daoguang version and the Republic of China version of the "Tongshan County", located in the northwest corner of the Dongyue Temple began to appear in the records, and moved to the Yunlongshan Dongyue Temple to separate, as if the same period two different temples. However, after analyzing the location records of other temples, such as Huoshenmiao and other temples, it can be inferred that the residents of Xuzhou in the Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty used the location of the Drum Tower as a reference to judge the position. With the development of the city, The center of the southeast area gradually into the urban areas, resulting in Daoguang people after judging the location of urban construction reference standards change, the late chronicle compilers recorded in the northwest, probably before the Drum Tower as a reference to the southwest. So the two temples are in fact the same one, it was in the Ming Dynasty four years of the flood destroyed, the only remaining a hall, future generations will be relocated to the south of Yunlongshan. Strictly speaking, it as an official temple, in the presence of time and Yunlongshan south of the parallel.

    The Republic of "Tongshan County" recorded Taoyanshan station, about 25 kilometers south of Xuzhou, after the founding of New China, Suzhou, Suzhou, Anhui Province, this is the boundary of Taoshan set. According to local people rumors, Taoshan ancient seventy-two temples, some older people can still calculate at least twenty blocks is that they had seen. But the field visits, the remaining sites are only two or three, the rest all die.

    Dongyue Temple has never heard of the locals, nor heard of Qi Temple, Taishan Temple or Grandma Temple and the temple with the name of Mount. They are most impressed, is less than 100 meters on the hillside temple on the hill, and said it is actually a Taoist temple. The temple known as the local people to see Fengshan Temple, the name of the mountain. An old man mentioned that the temple is dedicated to the statue of Huang Feihu. Because the novel "Fengshen Kingdoms" in the popular, Huang Feihu after the death was called "Dongyue Taishan days Qi Ren Sheng Dayi" one that is widely accepted, Huang Feihu is actually a folk legend in the Taishan emperor. The temple is likely to be recorded in the Chronicles of the "Dongyue Temple", but it is in the middle of the people gradually changed its name.

    A Study on the Old Track of the Qi Temple in

    In addition to the "Xinanji" appeared in the "Tongshan County" "building test" outside the "Temple of Heaven", where they are located in the four "Tianqi Temple", where they spend Ma Zhang, Rong Hua Lou, Xin'anji, Jia Jiaguan , The rest are not documented.

    Huashang Zhang, in the "Xuzhou folk literature integration" and "Tongshan County folk literature integration" volume, there is a story about the "flower horse village", the village is located in the northwest of Mao village, near the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. Whether the story of the hero of foreign households, or local villagers, both surnamed Zhang, in accordance with the folk from the habit of names, the land is also likely to be called "Ma Ma Zhang", I do not know whether the records of the village records;

    Xin'anji, in this Xuzhou 45 kilometers northwest, is Jing'an town, formerly Tongshan County, in 1955 designated to Peixian. Mr. Wang Daqin in the "revisit Jingan Town," a text, referred to and Xinanji in close proximity Jing'an Town, the town that is a day Qi Temple;

    Rong Hua Lou and Jia Jia Ge specific location, in the government, state, county can not find clues, published in 1982, "Tongshan County, Jiangsu Province, directory" also not included, need further research, but according to the characteristics of geographical names , Should be in the countryside.

    It is noteworthy that, since the county clearly stressed that the above four temple name for the days of Qi Temple, indicating the difference between the former Dongyue Temple, the name should be more accurate.

    Republic of "Tongshan County" Another addition to the benefit of the country after the Fair and the Temple Fair two, did not specify the specific temple. This Lee country has the eastern side of the town of Cai Village, the village has a waste temple. According to the temple Jiaqing has not (1799) years inscriptions, the temple name "Taishan temple", as well as the villagers in the temple near the discovery of a Ming Dynasty stone, on "Ming Jiajing rebuilt Bixia palace". Through the inquiry, they learned that the local people called the temple "mother temple" ( "mother" is the Xuzhou area folk saying, in a special context, the meaning is completely the same as "milk"). According to the above clues, you can determine the temple is Taishan Bixia Yuanjun temples, rather than "Dongyue Emperor", "Taishan Dadi", "Tian Qi Da Di" and so on. Chronicles recorded, or because of its associated with Mount Tai, falsely Dongyue Temple (or Tian Qi Temple).

    Temple is now this Xuzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone Daimiao Town, about 15 kilometers away from Xuzhou city. "Tongshan County folk literature integration," the first volume, "the origin of the temple," a text about the origin of the temple name, that is, since the days after the establishment of Qi Temple, statement far and wide to attract many monks to build the temple, Temple will be a greater impact, so named after the temple. Although the text belongs to folklore, but the day Qi temple in the local but there is indeed.

    According to the above summary, the Republic of "Tongshan County," "Dongyue Temple" article included all the temples, only one Yunlongshan south of the Dongyue temple can be affirmed, the Department moved from the city; Taoshan station I do not know the initial name, but in folk Was changed to look Fengshan Temple; Lee State Station for the Taishan grandmother temple mistaken for Dongyue Temple; the remaining five are the name of Qi Temple. In the field study found that called Tianqi Temple also mentioned at the beginning of the article Han Shan Tian Qi Temple, Jiuli Xin Shan Tian Qi Temple, as well as located in the new town of Liuzhou 2 km Tianqi Temple.

    Han Shan Tian Qi Temple was built when I do not know what is now left after the collapse of the rubble heap site, was covered with grassland, the temple twenty or thirty meters there Ishii one, there is water. According to Wang Yu, a 80-year-old Wang described the old man, the temple, "facing the south, the original courtyard into the two, the front yard is the gate, there is room, is playing surface (grinding surface), a hall; East House Guanyin Bodhisattva that house, is zhāng (with) reed installed; main room (the main hall) is not a reed, but also the tile is a small tile, three; , Four main room, a statue, standing like, after the top wall that read - Huang Feihu.

    In addition, the old man made it clear that "days together", the day is that we "days" of the day, Qi is "complete" Qi, because the four houses that hall above (eaves) wrote the temple name. He also said that the temple had two monks, a monk, a small monk, monk is the old monk, monk is the first year (past) have poor families (children) to send the top of the temple (inside) To help the old monk to draw water children, farming children, and the temple had a temple, the date of March 17, at the concert, sell donkey, sell livestock, sell things, have.

    Jiuli Xin Shan Tian Qi Temple, integrated in the local visit, the temple on the west side of the road, backed by Simsan, "the door to the east gate", two into the yard. The temple has "South Langfang", "North Langfang", before and after the yard have hall, "the hall is the statue of plastic", "(backyard hall) the gods According to listen to them, is" Gods " People, Dongyue days Qi Huang Feihu. " Some people said that the front yard for the idol, "people say is 'day master'." Temple in the past to live a monk, and the temple has a temple, held in the open in front of the mountain.

    Liu Xin North had a day Qi Temple, located in the new Tianqi village east, and the old Qi village together, due to mining collapse and agricultural transformation, into a Dutch field. According to previously lived in the temple left the Cao mother said that the temple is only one into the yard, a hall, "East, West Langfang", "the hall is the first east of the first temple", the hall for the "God brand" , "The plastic statues are muddy tires", West Langfang have "mother ghosts" (sound), "wear a shoe, to mention (sound dī)," Pull a shoe, wearing a filial piety hat, dressed in filial piety gown ", East Langfang" what people have "," missing arm, broken legs, under the pan ... ... "Also, the original temple has a monument , "Do not know where to get the monument." The temple also temple, from the first eight to eight days from the twelfth lunar month.

    In the old memories, the temple dedicated to the gods, most people said that Huang Feihu, or also dedicated to the Goddess of Mercy, "Heaven" and so on, and rarely said that with the Taishan-related Of God, only one old man to say "Dongyue Tian Qi Huang Feihu", but do not know "Dongyue" Why is intended.

From the mountain gods, gods to the heroic folk development

    Taishan belief from the original primitive mountain worship, to the official worship of Dongyue God to the people to accept and transform the personality of the God of the Dong Yue Tian Qi Da Tai, and then developed to Huang Feihu as the main image of folk worship, during which also interspersed Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism Three of the important gods for the competition, has undergone a very complex process. The temple in Xuzhou area, with its rich variety of forms of heritage, as we interpret the folk culture of Xuzhou provides a key.

    On the Mount Tai belief in Xuzhou folk "Tian Qi Temple", and further development is dedicated to Huang Feihu is such, is actually a god from the mountain gods, to the people more familiar with the process of a heroic God. Dongyue Tian Qi Ren Sheng's emperor, because the emperor decreed the abolition of the official disappearance, but because of the novel "Fengshen Kingdoms" popular, and in the folk "resurrection" and "Huang Feihu" in the form of inheritance of this heritage , Tian Qi Da God and the heroic Huang Feihu together for one person, to continue as a Buddhist, also the image of the road is the people believe. Whether it is a specific temples, statues, sculpture, or because of the existence of the temple caused by the temple and other cultural phenomena, are at the time people's spiritual life occupies a very eye-catching position, people talk about the important presence.

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