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June 17, 2016 Pengcheng Evening News reported that "the Ministry of the mountain of the ancient buildings of the human password"

来源:www.xzmsbwg.com   更新:2016-6-24 12:26:55   点击:

 




Wen | Zhang Jin Figure | Yong Qin Bai Xue Wen

  "Music and architecture are the closest, because architecture and music place creativity in proportion and structure," says Hegel.

  Goethe in the Roman cathedral in front of the pillars of the plaza when walking, feel the melody of music; Liang Sicheng from the Summer Palace promenade found a harmonious rhythm; if pretend in the ancient and fashionable tribes of the ancient mountains, , Each a long history of wind and rain, the intention of building the house, is a beautiful song children.

  Proportion, structure, standard, grade ... ... Department of the ancient houses of the housing beams, ridge, stone steps, brick, all implication of traditional residential construction of the folk password, because the traditional Chinese culture by the builders believe, Rules cover up the house, live in harmony will be Heaven and man, young and old orderly, descendants stretch.

  

  Inside the road round the outer compound compound

  Department of the mountain is located in the ancient city of Xuzhou south, in ancient times by its position known as the "Nanshan." Cold weapons age, this 70 meters above sea level hill, is near the city stand out high ground. West Chu King Xiang Yu Nanshan to build Taiwan view after the horse, the history of this nostalgia to pay a constant stream, tomorrow Kai four years (1624) to avoid floods, Xuzhou households part of the Department moved from Kui Shan this, then " "The name. Soon, the official businessmen have to find land in this house, to the Qing Dynasty, has formed a commercial trade and living as one of the resident community.

  From the aerial map can clearly see that the Ministry of the mountain block layout for the foreign inner circle, by Ma Street, Labor Lane, Pengcheng Road and Jiefang Road formed a square, champion street for the inner circle. Between the inner circle by the household North, South Hutong Lane connected north and south, Cui Lane connected things.

  Department of mountain residential is located in the hillside, the overall layout is different from the plain area. The streets of this region is not the usual grid-like roads, but divided into circular roads, radial roadway and alley three. The main courtyard to the top of the mountain Xiang Yu Ma Tai and other temple buildings as the center, was ring ladder distribution in the Ministry of mountain around, and the level, the highest level in the top, the residence mansion in the mountainside, the city middle and ordinary People in the foothills. Because of the mountains are confined, there are also differentiated towards the courtyard.

  This block of the pyramid tip, is undoubtedly the opera stage as the center of the palace complex.

  The next level, is a strong financial position, the status of the more than the Grand Courtyard, Cui Family Courtyard, Li Pan, the official residence of the government and other official residence. These courtyards occupy the ideal position of the Ministry of Hill, followed the layout of traditional residential practices, courtyard south, houses around symmetrical, local and flexible according to the different terrain changes. The scale of the house, composed of multi-channel into the courtyard. According to the provisions of the feudal system, the courtyard of the higher grade system, the courtyard not only has the function of residence, but also with the function of social interaction, the requirements of the room than the general residential requirements, housing tall, ornate, also has ancestral hall, Family temple, living room, car room and other special features of the room.

  Once again, is located in the Ministry of mountain Dongpo, slightly inferior location of the Zheng family compound, Zhai family compound, courtyard east. This type of compound is a big business owners, financially strong, the courtyard of the good location, although not as a hierarchical style residence residence, but relatively ordinary houses, courtyard houses tall and spacious, the building has a certain decoration, in addition to meet the living function, To meet the social communication function of the living room, waiting for living room, garden, courtyard streamline organization is also more abundant.

  However, due to mountain limits, the Ministry of the courtyard of the courtyard on the north side of the mountain is also a large number, they are generally located in the streets of the South Road, such as Liu Courtyard, Li family Building, Lee Tongmao pickles garden, Zhang tea shop in mind, and so on. Although the north gate of these courtyards, but the overall layout of the hospital housing is still facing south, followed by housing from north to south, from low to high extension, but the first admission to see the back wall of the house, through the sidewalk into the house next to the sedan Room of the courtyard. House owners for ordinary people and middle-class people, courtyard building has a strong local color.

  Courtyard westward courtyard, located in Pengcheng South Street, such as the Royal Courtyard, Zhou Courtyard, such courtyard gate west, the courtyard extended from west to east, but each courtyard is still north-south Courtyard.

  In addition, as a modern commercial center, there are a large number of shops in the Shoushan Shan District, and residential form a shop-style residential and production-style residential.

  From the late Ming to the Republic of China a few hundred years, the Ministry of Mountain District of the mansion and ordinary residence in the meantime. The first half of the fifties and sixties, where the compound suffered the majority of the damage, into the nineties of last century, the city government on the Ministry of Hill District, a large-scale repair, has restored the former residence of Cui Tao, Yu Grand Courtyard, Zhai Courtyard, Liu Grand Courtyard, Zheng Grand Courtyard, the right to keep the ancient arch and other buildings, mountain extension of the circular cloth Street and cultural markets, the continuation of the Ming and Qing Dynasties ancient commercial bustling.

  

  Patriarchal Ethics in Cui Tao 's Former Residence

  Department of the Ministry of the existing residential buildings in the Qing Dynasty to the main, between the Ming Dynasty and the Republic of China during the residential. As the owner of different identities, financial differences, although with the Department of the Ministry of Hill, the difference is great, the largest of which is the former residence of Former Linpan and Cui Tao Former residence. Cui Tao Former Residence Xuzhou ancient houses to create a tradition of non-genetic Cheng Xu, Xuzhou ancient architecture expert Sun Tongyi presided over the repair. From the ruins to the carved beams, from the weeds to the pavilions, Sun workers are well aware of the plants and trees here, brick and tile, as well as the customs behind the folk, he said, because the building itself will speak.

  Cui Tao House, also known as Cui Family Courtyard, in the Ministry of the mountains of the compound, the oldest and highest specifications. According to the "Cui's genealogy", Ming Jiajing years, Shandong Puzhou Hanlin Cui Haiyin dissatisfied with the emperor stupid, traitor Yan Song chaos, resigned from the North Zhili (now Beijing) Wanping Fu Yin, seclusion Xuzhou, This household mountain). This is the origin of the Cui Family Courtyard, than the revelation of Nanshan District, the transfer of some of the Division of Xuzhou as early as 60 years.


Cui Tao Former Residence

The spring of 2009, the ancient Chinese architect Luo Zhewen (left, right) and other experts and scholars to study the former residence of Cui Tao


City History Association Li Hongmin (right) inscription "a compound two hundred years of prosperity and decline of the times"



Distribution of Ancient Houses in. Remake in the "Ministry of Housing Hill home"



Colorful Paintings in Former Residence of


The picture on the left is the shape of the house in the Han Dynasty stone image. Remake in the "Ministry of Housing Hill home"


   Cui Tao's former residence is Cui Tao's offer in the hometown of the former home on the expansion, by the lower house, the upper house and guest house courtyard three major components, a total of more than 300, covering almost half of the Ministry of mountain. In front of the lower house there are two flagpoles, the people here called "Choi flagpole."

  Cui in the Ming and Qing dynasties were a total of nine Jinshi, two Hanlin, 13 people have any prefect, Tongzhi, pass judgment and other prominent position determines the Cui Family Courtyard architectural form of the noble level for the Department of the Ministry of Hill The most:

  "Five ridges and six beasts," non-rich that your former residence of Cui Tao Xuzhou is the largest living room is the most representative of Xuzhou region or the traditional process characteristics of the brick and wood hall architecture. The roof has the most Xuzhou characteristics ridge ornaments shape "five ridges and six beasts."

  Five ridges and six beasts are Han palace-style buildings, there are five on the ridge, the four corners have the first six animals. Five ridge, refers to the large ridge (ridge) and four vertical ridge. Ridge at both ends of a dragon kiss, also called swallow beast. Four vertical chiropractors are arranged with five squatting beast, namely: 狻猊, bull, 獬 Zhi, Feng, apish fish. Collectively known as the "five ridges and six beasts," Qi Qi Xiang, decorative beauty and protection of the triple function of the building.

  Ordinary people's home building only two rows of ridges, "five ridges and six beasts" of the building is either a dignitaries with, or is wealthy people with.

  In accordance with the ancient construction of folk, "home meritorious mouth beast, home without merit to shut up the beast, the partial side of the back seat of the unsettled animal, the main room of the house big animal". If the social status in accordance with the Cui family, is the spine beast is a mouth beast, and Cui family compound has been used to shut the beast. According to Mr. Sun Tongyi explained that this is the performance of the Cui Jia modest and prudent, low-key life of the psychological.

  "Floral Yunyan" implies auspicious "flower Yunyan" and "five ridges and six beasts" are ridge decorations, reflecting the strict concept of hierarchy. Than the "five ridges and six beasts," a high level is the "flower of the beast beast", that is, the head of the ridge is installed on the grass-shaped iron-like flowers. Than the "flower beast," a higher level of "flower Yunyan", that is inserted in the head of an iron crescent iron, the top iron iron swallows, hence the name.

  "Floral Yunyan" is a typical representative of the ancient houses of Xuzhou, which symbolizes the social ideal of harmony between man and nature, active and high-spirited, and good fortune and well-being. "Flower Yunyan" to create technology, early in the early Qing Dynasty in Xuzhou popular, Cui Tao's descendants still remember the former home on the roof of the "flower Yunyan" shape.

  Cui flagpole, "Xie Enfang" highlight the fame Cui Tao Former residence of the gorgeous Kouhua door is built by the order, is the only government building within the framework of the painting. Standing in front of two up to more than 20 meters of the flagpole, hanging above the big "Cui" word, the back of the emperor commended Cui's edict, which is also very rare in the country.

  Xie Enfang built in the former residence of Cui Tao Di door left front, lintel on the horizontal plaque, "Xie Enfang" is the Chinese modern calligrapher, the late Qing Dynasty, Zhang Bo British title Juren. Square square block stone, commonly known as "Shane stone", according to legend, once the emperor decreed in the Qing Dynasty Cui home, Cui family had kowtow in this Shane. Shane Square lintel carved on the door a pair of exquisite hairpin, for the million book style, a symbol of the Cui family books.

  And the upper house of other housing steps for the singular is different, Shane Square on each side is the second step, meaning happy event in pairs, double-sided is a four-step steps, known as everything wishful, plus the center two paving stone, Six Shun.

  

  The building of Zhuang Government permeated the thought of complementarity between Confucianism and Taoism

  Li Pan is the only champion in Xuzhou history, Li Pan champion House is the Ministry of households in two of the largest residential one (the other is Cui Tao's former residence). Li Pan champion was built in the Qing Emperor Kangxi years, back according to play Taiwan, occupying the Ministry of mountain gentle mountain half of the southern slope, the original around four into three courtyards, houses more than 400 rooms. Champion after three hundred years of wind and rain, there are still more than 30 buildings, the restoration project has been included in the agenda.

  In the Confucian ethics, the ceremony is to maintain the heaven and earth up and down the human dignity of the universe order and social order of the criteria, and Cui Tao home level is similar to the main building is also the main building "five ridges and six beasts" and "flower Yunyan" Wei For spectacular. House of static cottage, library, Yunxiang book house full-bodied.

  The building of Zhuang Government permeated the thought of complementarity between Confucianism and Taoism. The main building in the courtyard is distributed on a central axis, and the layout is rigorous, the primary and secondary are distinct. The ancestral hall of the west courtyard reflects Confucian respect for the traditional patriarchal blood relationship. Middle courtyard house is located in the east of the main room, which is the southeast direction of the inner courtyard (gigabit). In addition, in order to Wenyun prosperity, school housing and Yunxiang bookstores are also arranged in the southeast direction, and granary, stables and other secondary buildings are arranged in the southwest direction. Backyard open up the leisure garden, downtown quiet, broad vision, is reflected in the Taoist landscape feelings.



Department of the ancient buildings on the ridge of the beast, tile and other components. Photo courtesy of the Institute of Ancient Architecture


Yu, Zhai, Zheng three courtyard extension of the Office of the imprint

  After a four-year flood (1624), the Ministry of Family Planning was forced to relocate to Nanshan, which is a high-lying mountain. To the Qing emperor Kangxi 17 years (1678), waste Xuzhou part of the Department of the Department, changed to Xuzhou Heying garrison, 8 years after the yamen moved from the Ministry of the east of the city outside the Yellow River shore. The original house of the Government experienced a number of hands and alterations, Xuzhou ancient architect Xu Jianguo analysis, Yu, Zhai, Zheng three compound is the general, the "Ministry of the Department of Yamen" continued down the ancient buildings.

  Yu Family Courtyard is located in the south of Shandong, the former part of the Division site, is the Department of the oldest mountain blocks repair complex. Now covers an area of 3,600 square meters, from left to right three-way courtyard.

  More than his ancestors in the Qing emperor Yong Zheng years from the ancestral home of AnhuiXuXian toXu Jingxian, QianlongIn the middle of the family business gradually Sheng, purchased in the Ministry of mountain "ShangBangShan" (that is, family property covers half of the family hills) And continue to expand the purchase, the late Qing Dynasty formed a magnificent present more than the Grand Courtyard.

  Yu courtyard compound for the central axis symmetrical plane layout, rigorous and orderly, spacious style. Affiliated courtyard features the use of obvious, East, West Road, the overall layout of the overall layout of the courtyard strict. East Road, the back yard of the former officials of the Department for the reception of Yin Hotel, West Road, back office for the Secretary of the official residence, the front yard for the Office of the Office of Code officials office space. Some houses still left the "hanging hill" roof and other official buildings remains, which is the Ming and Qing Dynasties residential buildings are not allowed to use.

  Zhai family courtyard built in the south side of the courtyard and the north side of the Zheng family compound between the narrow strip, there are more than 40 houses. Zhai ancient home in Shanxi, the Ming Dynasty to move Xu, the middle of Qing Dynasty to become well-off, bought the original courtyard here, after the original, according to the original building on the terrain was transformed.

  Xu Jianguo teacher said, from the Zhai Grand Courtyard of the building layout view, here and I compound the early years should be a complete system of buildings, although the original building was transformed, but still can see the old building group The overall layout of the group.

  Zheng is located in the Department of Shandong, a courtyard, courtyard deep. Zheng Jiaqing first moved to Xuzhou, Tongzhi years moved households Department Hill. Both sides of the courtyard of the left and right rooms are three wide, built on the high base, located vertical belt step, the main courtyard house axis symmetrical layout, building regulation rigorous, are official architectural style.

  

  Mandarin duck floor, the Department of the ancient houses of the mountain to the flash in the pan

  Yuanyang Lou is a very unique architectural form of the ancient houses of Hushi Mountain. Such houses have cleverly solved the problem of the large gap between the mountain buildings and the difficulties caused by the multi-courtyards. The buildings are divided into upper and lower floors, Each opening a door to the opposite, leading to different heights of the ground. East-West housing, Xiyang Dongyang; north-south housing, North Yin Nanyang. Because of yin and yang and Yuanyang homophonic, so called mandarin duck floor.

  Sun Tongyi said, "not only 'mandarin duck' and 'Yin and Yang' homophonic, in the deep meaning of culture, the two are also in harmony with each other .This building is both ingenuity design, but also suit one's measures to local conditions; both weather, , And the crystallization of the master is the gods even the goods.

  Yuanyang floor in the Department of the Ministry of the ancient houses in the original three cases, one in the middle of the old salt shop, has been destroyed; the second case in the Zhai Grand Courtyard, overhaul changed the original; the last case is Cui's existing homes on this.

  "Cui Tao House upper courtyard Yuanyang floor up and down two, the use of the slope of the gap construction, no stairs, facing the opposite, the floor before and after their door, leading to different levels of hospital yard floor ingenious design, has a high empirical value And academic research value.

  "As the flooded Xuzhou, then Hutushan high cost of land, high land prices, competitive, very difficult to buy a homestead, so the entire Ministry of Mountain residential buildings due to geographical constraints make the house is relatively small, the designer brains The design of mandarin duck building is to solve the difficulty of transition between the two houses caused by the large gap between the courtyards and the courtyards, and also to improve the land utilization rate fully.The design of mandarin duck building is a flash in the pan and its appearance conforms to nature, Specific environmental requirements. "

  To avoid evil, north-south Xu-compatible building model

  In the Ministry of Hill residential, the builders often use symbols, homophones, under the guise of phonetic methods and the use of intuitive image to look forward to auspicious auspicious, good fortune.

  Such as pomegranate, peony, plum, peach, lion, wishful, ancient coins, the Eight Immortals, bats, lotus and other patterns in the decoration of houses to express festive, auspicious ideas.


 

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